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Toolkit

Baseline Review

Before reaching your goals, you need to know where to start. The baseline review creates a framework of information that serves as a basis for the setting of relevant targets to your planning process. The baseline review helps to analyse the present situation in the city-region: strengths and weaknesses, risks and opportunities, for example, regarding mobility and accessibility, the provision of services, residential preferences or other important field impacting the development of the city-region. In order to take into account the individual opinions participation of the different actors need to be encouraged.

Baseline review helps to answer the following questions:

  • How could your region be more attractive?
  • What do the residents and other groups think about their living and working environment?
  • What kinds of actions are needed to improve living and working environment?
  • What are the main gaps in quality of life regarding, e.g., residential preferences, mobility and accessibility, and provision of services?
  • Who could best provide input to map the most urgent challenges?

In order to gather necessary information for the baseline review the participation of different actors is important including residents, business holders, investors, scientists, NGO’s, and local authorities. For encouraging the participation of different actors various involvement methods are needed.

Methods

Target groups

Why this method ?

Local stakeholder meetings
  • residents and NGOs
  • local authorities
  • journalists
  • business holders
Offer a chance for open discussion between residents and local authorities to get the first insight on the residents’ opinions on the planning issue concerned. Participation of journalists is useful for dissemination of information about the activities.
Survey
  • residents
Helps to collect and analyse individual opinions more systematically.
Focus Groups
  • scientists
  • citizens,
  • specialists
Helps to get and analyse individual as well as d expert opinions.
Interviews with policy makers
  • local/regional policy makers
Allows collecting information from important actors such as local decision makers about the current policy goals and the political processes in the city-region.
Desk analysis
  • coordination team,
  • local authorities,
  • cross-sectoral working group,
  • external experts
Helps to critically analyse local circumstances, the major challenges in the city-region and other information needed to prepare the planning process.
Literature review
  • coordination team
It helps to gather data from different sources, about local circumstances, legal requirements, to analyse already existing strategies, programmes and plans by using statistical data, and analytical/descriptive information.


When starting a planning process in your city-region you should consider beginning with a Local Stakeholder Information Meeting in order to inform about the process, its goals, and approaches. The Information Meeting might be a broad discussion of strengths and weaknesses, challenges and opportunities concerning the planning issues you will deal with. The discussions can help you to identify and formulate priority challenges in the city-region.

The Local Stakeholder Information Meeting is also useful for identifying and analysing the range of stakeholders you might involve in your activities later on. Make a list of the key stakeholders in your city-region, which are in one or other way connected to your identified priority challenges, or try to widen the scope of already identified stakeholders. Discuss different possibilities how to reach and involve the individuals in your activities, i.e., how to include the claims and concerns of the citizens and their views on their living environment in your city-region.

In the NEW BRIDGES project the majority of the stakeholders who participated in the Information Meetings were practitioners, i.e., members of local and regional authorities or representatives of interest groups (NGOs). Involvement of decision makers and entrepreneurs for the initial stage was also important. Furthermore the participation of scientists in the meeting gave added value to the process. The journalists were involved in order to disseminate information about the on going activities.

People, who prepare the plans and strategies for the municipalities and regions, e.g., staff, consultants, and volunteers, or representatives from all these, are at the starting point of the process. They can initiate the process of integrating the planning practices of different municipalities by following the different steps of the IMS model. The initiators and coordinators of the process can be named as the Coordination team. The team can consist of different stakeholders depending on the specific circumstances of the city- region.

Having in mind further step of the planning process, especially implementation, it is important to get into contact with relevant local and regional policy makers already at this stage of the planning process. It is advised to conduct interviews with at least five local/regional policy makers, who are the most important actors, when it comes to the implementation of the process. A dialogue of the initiators with colleagues from the municipality and representatives of different groups and communities on what kind of actions could make the region a better place to live could be helpful. During the initial steps of the process it is important to select the appropriate methods for local stakeholder meetings. External moderators and lecturers might be relevant.

You can find more information on the stakeholder involvement and the methods used from the chapters on organisational set-up and involvement and communication.

www.ubcwheel.eu/index.php/gpdb/article/3270

www.ubcwheel.eu/index.php/gpdp:gpdb/article/3275

Organisational setup

One of the key aspects behind the successful use of the IMS model is the creation of a suitable organisational set-up – one of the crosscutting elements of the system. The organisational set-up always depends on the local and regional context as well as thematic or geographical scope of the process. An optimal organisational set-up would consist of the following groups involving a number of relevant local stakeholders:

Coordination team

The coordination team can consist of local and regional planners or other authority members from different municipalities. Alternatively one related department (planning, environmental issues or transport department etc.,) of one of the municipalities can take the lead in terms of overall coordination and implementation. The coordination team takes care of the coordination and operationalization tasks and act as the initiators of the whole process. The coordination team also deals directly with questions such as: What kind of activities needs to be implemented? Who should be involved? Who is responsible for each task?

Cross-sectoral working group

The cross-sectoral working group (CSWG) consists of local and regional authority members and politicians from all of the municipalities concerned. The working group participants should bring with them a certain level of expertise relevant to the region in focus and the topic to be discussed, e.g. comprising representatives responsible for planning, mobility, culture and social issues. Additionally, external experts such as researchers, consultants and NGOs could also attend. Since planning is always a multidisciplinary process the main role of the working group members is to bring their professional knowledge into the planning process and ensure that all relevant perspectives are taken into consideration. The members of the CSWG should participate in planning throughout the process from baseline review to evaluation. The coordination team initiates the work of the CSWG, keeps them updated, and organises meetings and private consultations with them.

Local stakeholders

An important part of the organisational set-up is the open stakeholder meeting designed to ensure the transparency and inclusiveness of the planning process. Stakeholder meetings invite interested participants to discuss, influence and evaluate the process. Stakeholder meetings play a particularly important role during the baseline review and target setting process when the main alignments are discussed. The meetings are organised by the coordination team. In the ideal situation these meetings consist of all of the above-mentioned actors and active participants from each of the municipalities including local and regional level authorities, politicians, NGOs, private sector actors, researchers and residents living in the region. Heterogeneous group of professionals and other stakeholders discussing issues of common interest together can identify new and innovative solutions for improving the quality of life. Interaction and genuine discussion between actors from various sectors is crucial in order to create the trust and mutual understanding which forms the basis for most partnerships.

Örebro: Organisational Set-up

Target setting

The first step is to form a common vision and identify the most important challenges in respect of the quality of life. It is important that everyone can agree with the vision and that they are committed to work towards it. Municipalities might have different visions and strategic objectives but it is essential to find a common understanding of the current situation. Stakeholder meetings offer space for open dialogue on what the participants consider to be the greatest strengths, weaknesses, potentials and threats regarding quality of life in their municipalities. The findings of the baseline review provide a common framework for the discussion. The focus of the discussions should, primarily, be on the needs of both urban and rural municipalities, and the potential to increase the links between them.

A common vision will be hard to attain unless it is accompanied by clear objectives and relevant targets. Everything cannot be done at once and a choice has to be made in respect of the challenges deemed most important to address at this stage. Clear and well defined targets designed to overcome the chosen priority challenges should be established. Targets and objectives should be integrated with those in the relevant municipal, regional, national and EU strategies and action plans (mobility policies, service strategies, master plans etc). In addition, compliance with European, national and regional legislation needs to be ensured. The most important thing is to remember that all the stakeholders from the city-region, especially politicians, must stand behind the visions and targets for the development, otherwise the action will not have the necessary legitimacy.

A common vision and targets developed in a participatory process will contribute to the acceptance of the process by the general public while strengthening the commitment of the participants and ensuring greater legitimacy within the city-region.


Planning of the practical process of target setting:

  • Plan the involvement of stakeholders and make sure that all relevant actors from the municipalities representing various sectors are included,
  • Decide how to go through the findings of the baseline review,
  • Plan how to organise the agreement and approval of the priorities and targets,
  • Indicate appropriate measures to fulfill the targets and create a clear plan for the implementation,
  • Define the allocation of human and financial resources as well as the responsibilities for implementation,
  • Ensure that the roles, responsibilities and contributions of the actors involved are clear and acknowledged by the various stakeholders and administrative units in the municipalities.

Methods

Target groups

Why this method ?

Local stakeholder meetings
  • residents and NGOs
  • local authorities
  • politicians
Meetings offer space for open dialogue on what the participants consider as the biggest strengths, weaknesses, potentials and threats regarding quality of life in their municipalities.
Desk analysis
  • local authorities
  • cross-sectoral working group
Helps to critically analyse the priority challenges, i.e., to make sure that those address the major challenges in the city-region and are in line with individual preferences.
Mind mapping
  • citizens,
Allows better involving citizens who are easily excluded from the conventional participation process.
Internal meetings
  • coordination team
  • local authorities
Allows discussing the course of the process.
Survey
  • residents
Method is used to reach a representative number of inhabitants and key stakeholders in the city-region in order to receive a sufficient amount of information for the analysis.
Brainstorming, Card system, Nominal group
  • residents
  • local authorities
Discussions to generate new ideas. Widely used as the first step in generating solutions to problems.



www.ubcwheel.eu/index.php/gpdb/article/3235

www.ubcwheel.eu/index.php/gpdb/article/3238

Involvement and communication

Involvement

Each community is faced with a different set of planning issues and challenges; each community also needs to determine the most appropriate level of public involvement. The number of public meetings, the existence and size of a steering committee, and the number of stakeholder interviews could not be set as one standard for all communities. However, it is important to provide meaningful and real opportunities for anyone in the community affected by the plan to participate in creating the plan.

In order to increase the probability of a successful collaborative process, at least these categories of issues related to stakeholders should be addressed:

  • clarifying appropriate levels of participation by different groups and establishing mechanisms for that participation;
  • deciding on the composition of the group;
  • specifying the desired characteristics of participants in the group;
  • deciding how representatives will be selected.

When analyzing potential stakeholders, it is important to consider the involvement of disadvantaged groups or individuals of the community. Equal access to public services is crucial to create the conditions for human subsistence, health and welfare. It is therefore one of the principle goals of any integration process to extend and improve services also for those inhabitants in city-region that have so far been neglected.


Consider the following steps when planning stakeholder involvement:

  • perform a stakeholder analysis to identify the internal and external stakeholder groups,
  • define an objective for your stakeholder co-operation, is it to enable more transparent decision making, to gain more knowledge or something else with a specific goal,
  • plan how various stakeholder groups will be involved and when, select communication and involvement methods used with each of the groups,
  • clarify that each participant is aware of their role and how they can be involved.

Successful public involvement could not be measured only by the number of people who attend a meeting or by how many residents visited the community’s website. The quality of the input and how the opinions and concerns are incorporated into the plan is also as important.

Who are the stakeholders?

A stakeholder in a planning process could be any person or organisation that have an interest because they could be affected by a planned activity or may have some influence, that have a specific interest in the development of the plan, that possess relevant information and expertise. Thus, it is important to identify the key stakeholders in a city-region, who have a direct connection to the planning target and who should be involved into the planning process.

The stakeholders can be divided into two groups. The internal stakeholders include all the representatives of municipal and regional authorities and politicians actively involved in the process. Practically they are the members of coordination team or cross-sectoral working group. Internal stakeholders take care of the operational implementation, i.e., the concrete elaboration of the plan or strategy. They make sure that the plans and objectives are approved in the political decision making level.

The external stakeholders include residents, private land owners, NGOs, researchers, entrepreneurs and government agencies, politicians, and all the others whom the plan might concern or who might be interested in it. External participants have an important role in the stakeholder meetings bringing in local knowledge, broader perspective, and critical feedback to the progress of the planning activities.

Before identifying representatives of different agencies and groups (i.e., organized public), it is extremely important to make sure that “every day folks” have an opportunity to be involved. Although an individual citizen may not be a member of a group or have a defined interest, his or her voice is very important in shaping the future of the community, part of which they are.

Importance and influence of stakeholders should be considered when analyzing stakeholders relevant to the planning process. Thus, name the stakeholders, identify their role in the process, evaluate how important and influential they are. When analyzing stakeholders you can use Stakeholder identification table.

Methods

Target groups

Why this method ?

Stakeholder identification
  • Coordination team
Helps to identify the stakeholders that should participate the process.
Local Stakeholder meetings
  • residents, NGO
  • local authorities,
  • journalists
  • business holders
Offer a chance for open discussion between residents and local authorities to get the first insight on the residents’ opinions on the planning issue concerned. Participation of journalists is useful for dissemination of information about the activities.
Survey
  • residents
Survey involves collection of information in the form of written responses to a standard set of questions. Often a starting point for participation processes. Helps to find out about individual opinions more systematically.
Focus groups
  • scientists
  • specialists
Helps to get and analyse individual and expert opinions.
Interviews
  • local and regional politicians
  • local autorities
Allows getting involved those, who are the most important actors in decision making process and later when it comes to the implementation of the process, i.e., politicians, decision makers, and local authorities.
Internal meetings
  • coordination team
  • local authorities
Allows discussing the course of the process.

www.ubcwheel.eu/index.php/gpdb/article/3276

www.ubcwheel.eu/index.php/gpdb/article/3273

Effective communication

Effective and solid communication and involvement are the key factors throughout the whole process from baseline review to evaluation. Without communicating the results effectively to the various targets groups you are not able to ”sell” your idea further and convince people of the fact that what you are doing is important. Already when planning the organisational setup, analysis of the existing information and communication structures within and between the municipalities is required. Are there some common ways to reach citizens in the whole city-region? Is there existing cooperation between different political decision makers? Is there a regional discussion platform for spatial planning issues?

When it comes to communication, it is crucial to recognize the “common story”, i.e., the overarching main message that is being communicated.

You can start with questions:

  • What is your process / activity/ plan about?
  • Why is it important?
  • Why should people be interested?
  • What results have you achieved?
  • How could people learn and benefit from your experiences?

The methods used and the message communicated vary depending on the target group. Internally, you need to “sell” the idea you want to develop further, whether it is a common biking plan, common master plan, regional cycling scheme, etc., to people working in other municipalities, planners, politicians, and the heads of administration. You have to convince them of the benefits that joint planning and cooperation in certain fields can bring.

Externally among the wider public you have to raise awareness of the issues and convince different groups that their opinion is valuable and needed in the planning process. Individuals need to understand that they actually can participate in shaping up their own living environment. When communicating with external stakeholders avoid using technical and professional language. Public attention and awareness helps to build political support and contributes to the citizen’s knowledge and understanding of the planning process.

How to communicate with different target groups?

First consider the objective of communication with your target group whether it to change public opinion, modify behaviour, educate policy makers/decision makers, and improve legislation or something else. Defining clearly the objective of the communication helps to choose the right methods to be used to each target group you want to deliver your message. If you know a person in real life representing the target group it is easier to get the first contact to the target group. Consider how this person or organisation could contribute that you will achieve your targets.

There is a variety of different ways of communication from personal communication to communication through different publications. Be sure to use variety of techniques such as direct messages, presentation at workshops and seminars, leaflets and brochures, articles in newspapers and journals, and web pages. Different communication means are needed to reach different target groups, for example, inhabitants and researchers. Consider which sources and channels of information do they use and trust. Before communicating with the different target groups it is helpful to consider how much does the target group knows about the process/plan and its aims and potentially results. The most important thing is that whatever your message is it has to be clear to the target group. Always clearly explain and justify the benefits of the plan/process for each target group.

Methods

Target groups

Why this method ?

Local Stakeholder meetings
  • residents, NGO
  • local authorities,
  • journalists
  • business holders
Meetings can be used as a tool for raising public awareness on the issues. Participation of journalists is useful for dissemination of the activities.
Press releases
  • residents
Helps to raise knowledge and awareness of the issues.
Personal communication
  • key persons
  • politicians
Enables to have confidential communication with certain persons if needed.
Informal meetings
  • politicians
  • decision makers
Allows getting involved those, who are the most important actors when it comes to getting political acceptance to the process.
Internal meetings
  • coordination team
  • local authorities
Allows discussing the course of the process.
Websites
  • residents
  • local authorities
  • journalists
A good way to gather all the information in one place and keep the stakeholders updated on the progress.
Presentations
  • residents
  • politicians, etc.
Presentations given in different events are a great way to raise awareness of the issues. Remember to adapt the presentation according to the audience.

Political commitment

Political commitment is the core element when implementing any kind of plan or strategy. In order to successfully introduce new targets and plans for the city-region, a large measure of political will and a clear recognition of the benefits are necessary. You may have planned a good project with clear targets and a robust implementation scheme. However, the project will be less successful if the processes and targets set at the planning level are not backed by the political decision makers and other relevant stakeholders in every municipality across the city-region.

Maintain the exchange of information alive with politicians from the outset of the process. Organise informal meetings with political leaders, mayors and major political groups and specialised committees to provide them with information about the importance of the process you are pushing forward. As actors from different municipalities can be afraid of losing control of some issues and, ultimately, of their political independence, it is essential to build trust. Key persons like local and regional politicians are important in opening doors and generating minds in terms of improving the level of interaction between urban and rural areas.

How to get the politicians interested?

No matter what your topic is always clearly highlight the benefits and give politicians concrete examples of what needs to be done. Provide them with examples of how the daily life of the residents could be improved; how public transport could be more attractive, in what kinds of areas people prefer to live and what kinds of services they want. Explain to politicians what the expected impacts of the plans are and how the city-region will benefit from it. Inviting politicians to undertake concrete actions and to meetings where the issues are treated is a good way to get them to understand the basic problems involved. This ensures their long-term engagement. Look for politicians that are interested in the specific field in which your project best fits (urban planning, social issues, mobility planning, service structure planning etc). Make sure that you have enough politicians representing different sectors and municipalities.

Getting political support for the project is crucial in avoiding a situation where the project or desired goals are not in line with real political life and existing priorities in the municipalities. In the end decisions made concerning spatial planning are based on the existing strategies and visions (priorities agreed in political decision making) in the municipalities. Politicians are the ones with the power to influence.

How to do it in practice?

  • Organise meetings with politicians at every crucial step of the process when important decisions are made,
  • Explain and clearly justify the benefits and possible advantages of the project,
  • Emphasise the importance of an integrated approach and of cooperation in regional planning,
  • Political bodies and stakeholders should be informed before addressing the media to seek public attention for the project,
  • Everyone should have an appropriate role in the implementation process and have the ability to provide input into the process,
  • Address the question of the resources needed, the expected timeframe and the implementation plan.

Methods

Target groups

Why this method ?

Informal meetings
  • political leaders
  • mayors
  • major political groups
  • specialized committees
Provide the stakeholders information about the importance of the process. Look for politicians that are interested in the specific field (urban planning, social issues, mobility planning, service structure planning, etc.).
Internal meetings
  • coordination team
  • local authorities
Allows discussing the course of the process.

Örebro: Getting political commitment

Implementation and monitoring


The implementation of any kind of process is a demanding task in terms of the organisation and coordination of all the parallel actions that have to take place. Successful implementation is based on a plan, an organisational set-up, good communications and the involvement of all relevant stakeholders. Cooperation between different municipalities brings challenges in terms of managing and coordinating all of the tasks and responsibilities divided among the various administrative units.

The coordination team is responsible for coordinating that the targets agreed previously and the plan to reach the targets will be now implemented. The division of tasks must however be clear. The coordination team takes care of the involvement of the cross-sectoral working group in the necessary phases of the implementation process. Depending on the type and nature of the planned activities the coordination team could consider outsourcing some parts of the implementation process to external experts like consultancies. The most important thing is that the coordination team retains an overall picture of the whole process.


How to plan the implementation?

  • Make sure that the cross-sectoral working group includes enough stakeholders from different sectors and municipalities,
  • Set-up an informal discussion platform for different actors,
  • Make sure that everyone signs up to common goals and objectives and understands the framework they are working within,
  • Check if there is enough cooperation and communication between different departments of the municipalities,
  • Find and assign appropriate measures relating to how the objectives are realised in practice,
  • Consider whether substantial and formal agreements with stakeholders are required.

Methods

Target groups

Why this method ?

Workshops and Round table workshops
  • experts
  • various citizen groups
  • local public authorities
  • institutions related to the implemented targets
Helps to bring participants together not only to analyze experience, to decide how to overcome difficulties but also to receive feedback from the local stakeholders involved on the process and results.
Peer visits
  • local authorities
  • coordination team
  • cross-sectoral-working group
Gives opportunity to get to know good practise cases, to learn from others, and get fresh ideas for your own work.
Management diaries
  • coordination team
Helps to follow the process and to manage the risks.
Work breakdown structure
  • coordination team
Helps to structure and follow the implementation process.
Reflection
  • Participants of the planning process
Helps to learn from experiences made during the implementation. Reflection allows exploring the process from different perspectives and provides an insight into other people’s behaviour in terms of how they contribute to the results of the process.


Monitoring the actions

Mere implementation of the actions is not sufficient in itself. Equally important here is the monitoring of these actions and comparing whether they correspond to the original targets and goals. Monitoring means regular observation and the recording of the activities taking place. The most important value of the monitoring is that it provides an opportunity to modify the actions in the desired direction if sufficient progress is not being made (taking into consideration the time schedule). Monitoring is then a useful way of producing updated progress information for politicians and other stakeholders and of evaluating the performance of all of the institutions within the process. A good monitoring and evaluation process engages all stakeholders and is useful for those ultimately responsible for coordinating the process.

Success factors in a good monitoring process:

  • Record the actions made and collect related data produced regularly,
  • Set a realistic timetable,
  • Set clear targets and indicators to measure performance,
  • Require reporting of the relevant actions in the implementation process,
  • Organise meetings for stakeholders to facilitate the coordination of actions and provide for and encourage the possibility of peer review.

To follow up the implementation process it is useful to interview different stakeholders and preferably those, who were involved in the implementation and have participated in previous stages of the process. It would be an advantage to the process to survey and get their opinions (both: positive and critical) in order to get as broad as possible reflection on the implementation process. During the process of monitoring it might appear that the implementation requires involvement of other stakeholders, who have not participated in the process yet. Attention should be paid to division of responsibilities between the stakeholders who have been identified during the first steps and those identified later.

Methods

Target groups

Why this method ?

Desk analysis
  • local authorities
  • coordination team
  • cross-sectoral-working group
  • external experts
The desk analysis helps to analyze the implementation process and identify its strengths and weaknesses. It also helps in further improvement of the management of quality of life in your city-region.
Interviews
  • stakeholders from different levels and sectors
Helps to learn what stakeholders think and how they feel about the IMS implementation process.
Cross- Sectoral Working Group meetings
  • cross-sectoral working group
Participants should bring with them a certain level of expertise relevant to the region in focus and the topic to be discussed, e.g., comprising representatives responsible for planning, mobility, culture and social issues. Additionally, external experts such as researchers, consultants and NGOs could also be included.


www.ubcwheel.eu/index.php/gpdb/article/3239

www.ubcwheel.eu/index.php/gpdb/article/3234

www.ubcwheel.eu/index.php/gpdb/article/3236

Evaluation and reporting

The last step of the process is the evaluation. This is a planned and systematic process that assesses the achievements by reference to preset criteria. Evaluation is needed to understand why something has happened – whether it failed or succeeded – and whether the changes are significant. What has been achieved in respect of improving the quality of life? What are the main outcomes of urban rural cooperation? Evaluation requires systematic monitoring during the previous steps so that both the flaws and the successful elements of the implementation process can be identified. This helps in answering the question - what comes next?

The results of the evaluation should be reported to decision makers to ensure that they are aware of the consequences of their actions and to provide them with a solid basis for taking further decisions. In a best case analysis can be used to prove that the whole process has fulfilled its purpose and should be continued. It is important to ensure that politicians and other stakeholders remain aware of the state of progress in order to gain acceptance for subsequent actions. Relevant stakeholders should also have an opportunity to give their opinion of the process.

Evaluation is an important public awareness and educational tool. Reporting on the results creates openness in respect of the actions already undertaken. However, the dissemination of the results must be planned in accordance with the needs and requirements of the different types of target groups. Residents are mainly interested in the concrete impacts that new plans will have on their daily lives while politicians may want information on the resources and investments required to realise these plans.

Things to remember:

  • Base your evaluation on systematic monitoring of the actions implemented;
  • Engage in a reflective dialogue over the results of the evaluation with different stakeholders and politicians;
  • When communicating about the evaluation’s findings to the public, be sure to use a variety of techniques such as visual displays, oral presentations, summary statements, and informal conversations;
  • Take advantage of the evaluation results to consider what should be done next and how the results can be used to generate further improvements. Consider whether there is a need for a new baseline review.


Importance of thorough evaluation of the achievements will be emphasised when seeking support for continuation of the cooperation processes. Political approval and acknowledgement of the valuable results can be reached only through effective communication within the whole city-region. Dissemination of the results must be planned according to the different types of target groups.

Methods

Target groups

Why this method ?

Local stakeholder meetings
  • various stakeholders: politicians, citizens, etc.
Meetings can be a public awareness and educational tool. Organise different meetings according to the target group. Politicians may want information on the resources and investments required to realize the plans whereas the citizens are interested in concrete changes that new plans have on their daily life.
Management diaries
  • Coordination team
Helps to follow the process and to manage the risks.
Peer visits
  • local public authorities
  • representatives from different institutions
Reflecting on other regions activities helps to see and evaluate own procedures from different point of view. It can also prevent to repeat mistakes done elsewhere.
Visual displays, Oral presentations, Summary statements, Informal conversations
  • different types of stakeholders groups
Dissemination of the results must be planned according to the different types of target groups.
Survey
  • different types of stakeholders groups
Allows including the stakeholder’s opinions to the evaluation process.
Reflection
  • participants of the planning process
Helps to learn from experiences made during the implementation. Reflection allows exploring the process from different perspectives and provides an insight into other people’s behaviour in terms of how they contribute to the results of the process.